Musement collects some of the most emblematic works of the great Renaissance painters, from Leonardo da Vinci to Albrecht Dürer.
The Renaissance is a broad cultural movement that affected all areas of society during the 15th and 16th centuries, especially the world of art and science. Renaissance painting distanced itself from medieval painting and was characterized by a return to the ideals of antiquity and, although religious themes continued to be treated, mythology, allegories, the human figure and historical themes began to gain prominence. In the works of the period, there is a greater mastery of perspective and the use of new effects and pictorial techniques, such as chiaroscuro or fading.
The Renaissance is divided into two main stages, the Quattrocento and the Cinquecento. Artists of the Quattrocento, such as Fra Angelico and Masaccio, were concerned with linear perspective and the perception of space. In the Cinquecento, artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael assimilated the novelties of the preceding painters and reached new creative heights.
Take a look at some of the most iconic Renaissance painters and their best-known works.
Leonardo da Vinci, 1452- 1519
Leonardo da Vinci is the face of the Renaissance movement. In addition to excelling in the world of painting, he shone in many other fields, such as sculpture and architecture. It is also worth mentioning his role as an engineer and inventor. Clear-cut examples of his mastery in this field are the models of machines based on his sketches that are exhibited in the National Museum of Science and Technology Leonardo da Vinci in Milan and in the Clos-Lucé castle.
Among his most outstanding paintings are The Last Supper, located in the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, The Mona Lisa and the Virgin of the Rocks, both exhibited at the Louvre Museum.
The Renaissance painter, sculptor and architect developed most of his artistic career in the cities of Florence and Rome. His best-known painting, The Creation of Adam, is one of the nine scenes of Genesis depicted by the artist that can be found on the ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.
Doni Madonna, also called Doni Tondo, is another of his most acclaimed creations. With the Madonna and Child in the foreground, Michelangelo created a colorful effect by using the cangiante technique. This wood panel in tempera and oil artwork is currently in the Uffizi Gallery.
Raphael Sanzio, 1483-1520
Along with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael is one of the greatest figures of the Renaissance. He began his training in Perugino’s workshop at a very early age, and the influence of his master can be seen in his first works, for example in The Marriage of the Virgin. During the artist’s Florentine period (1504-1508), one of his greatest influences was Leonardo da Vinci himself, as can be seen in the Madonna of the Goldfinch, which displays da Vinci’s renowned pyramidal structure and use of chiaroscuro.
Some of his most famous works belong to his Roman period, when Raphael worked for Pope Julius II. The frescoes in Raphael’s four Vatican Rooms (Room of the Signatura, Room of Heliodorus, Room of the Fire in the Borgo and Hall of Constantine) are a true marvel, especially The School of Athens, one of his most admired creations.
Sandro Botticelli, 1445-1510
The Florentine artist is one of the most prominent painters of the Italian Quattrocento. After training in Filippo Lippi’s workshop, a large amount of his artistic production was linked to the Medici family from whom he received numerous commissions. At the time, creating large-scale works that weren’t religious themed was considered a novelty. This is why two of his most famous creations that focused on mythology, The Birth of Venus and Primavera, caused a huge stir. Today, the Uffizi Gallery houses both pieces.
Titian Vecellio, c.1488-1576
Titian, one of the most renowned Renaissance painters of the Venetian School, trained in the workshop of Giovanni Bellin. At the time, Bellin was the most important artist in the city. During his long career, Titian demonstrated his mastery in the most varied pictorial genres, from landscapes and mythology to religious paintings and portraits. In addition, his use of color and the loose brushstroke technique greatly influenced contemporary painters. Among his most outstanding works are Venus of Urbino (Uffizi Gallery), Bacchus and Ariadne (National Gallery, London), Portrait of Charles V with a Dog (Prado Museum) and the Assumption of the Virgin (Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari).
Fra Angelico, 1395-1455
The Dominican friar is a key figure of the early Renaissance. In his deeply spiritual works, some Gothic decorative elements are mixed with more realistic elements typical of the Renaissance. One perfect example is the use of perspective and the use of color to give a greater expressive charge to his creations. The Prado Museum houses one of his most popular altarpieces, The Annunciation, while the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum houses the Madonna of Humility.
Masaccio is a key figure in the history of art, he was the first to apply the laws of scientific perspective to painting. The San Giovenale Triptych, his first work, was a revolution by introducing the three-dimensional concept in painting. His artistic career was very intense even if he had a very short and unfortunate life. The Holy Trinity(Basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence), Expulsion from the Garden of Eden, The Tribute Money (both in the Brancacci Chapel), or the Virgin and Child with St. Anne (Uffizi Gallery), are some of his masterpieces.
Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528
The painter and printmaker is the most notable artist of the German Renaissance. His engravings had a great influence on the development of Western art. Although his training days were marked by late Gothic Flemish paintings, he soon adopted the principles of humanism and played an important role in the spread of Renaissance ideas and styles. Among his best-known etchings are Melancholy I, Knight, Death and the Devil and the Apocalypse series.